noticeable shift in emphasis toward corporate training (or “talent development,” as the lingo du jour would have it)
genuine gaps in that market that our college and university system is doing a poor job of filling, which means that their graduates are not doing as well in the job market as they could be
lessons from the 2012-2013 MOOC craze was that there are a lot of white-collar professionals who need to keep current on their skills and who are still looking for opportunities to do so. Badges are showing up in this space, but I don’t see a lot of evidence that they are needed. So far, most mid-career folks who are taking MOOCs and other non-certification online courses don’t seem to need something additional to show current or prospective employers what they’ve done
Instead, badges seem to be gaining the most traction in career readiness, particular for so-called “middle skills” jobs that require more than high school degree but less than four-year college degree.
The credential gap can amount to 25 percentage points or more for middle skill jobs in some occupational families, like Office and Administrative and Business and Financial Operations.
This suggests that employers may be relying on a B.A. as a broad recruitment filter that may or may not correspond to specific capabilities needed to do the job.
Jobs resist credential inflation when there are good alternatives for identifying skill proficiency.
In many of those occupations with a growing credentials gap, it is worth examining exactly why employers prefer employees with a college education
In the latter case, greater alignment between K-12 schools, job training programs, and employers might accomplish the same goal with greater precision.
This is gap where I’m seeing the most traction for badges.
To a lesser degree, I’m also beginning to hear anecdotes of colleges and universities working with area high schools to create badges around college readiness and earning AP-style credit.
The post-credential transition gap opportunity is pretty big with lots of room to grow and no huge barriers to expansion. In contrast, there are many very significant barriers to replacing current, more formal credentials with stackable micro-credentials, ranging from the politics and change management of getting traditional universities to embrace true, top-to-bottom Competency-Based Learning (CBE) to the fact that none of the major SIS systems on the market today handle microcredentials well and I see no reason to believe that either the existing players will improve dramatically or a new player will gain major traction in the near future.
As with any lucrative market, the corporate education space is immensely competitive and numerous players—private organizations, consultancies, colleges, universities and more—leverage their unique competitive advantages to jockey for position and serve their client organizations
impact alternative providers have had on the corporate education landscape and reflects on the unique advantages postsecondary and alternative corporate education providers bring to the table.
The professional and executive education marketplace is rich with diverse organizations competing for business.
corporate training providers coming out of unaccredited organizations.
professional development and corporate training marketplace, no one is sure exactly how big it really is.
corporate learning groups, consulting firms or individual trainers.
One of the primary challenges is that everyone who is hoping to serve this professional development market is trying to leverage unique expertise, capabilities and approaches.
While public, open enrollment programs still maintain a healthy share of the market, the growth is in customized programs.
This flexibility and client orientation has really helped alternative providers to grow and claim even more of the professional development playing field.
training alone is not what organizations are looking for
The challenge is making sure that, once the training has taken place, employees can demonstrate the impact of that training in a work environment.
They need to understand the subtleties of how to make it work and to track what that person has learned and adopted over time.
Alternative providers are bringing new and different perspectives, technologies and capabilities to their clients
It is meant to be locked in a secure location and only shown on rare occasions—to graduate school admissions offices or hiring managers in HR departments, for instance—to verify attendance, grades, or degrees.
The lowly transcript does not capture what a student has learned. Nor does it capture achievement outside of the classroom or the aspirations that may signal long-term career success. A student cannot sign email with a transcript, so it is not tied in any useful way to digital identities. Employers cannot endorse valued skills or the relevance of a project.
There is a permanent record today, and it’s called the internet.
With rising third-party costs for colleges and universities as well as students’ “less traditional” educational trajectories (jumping between traditional university coursework, online and employer certifications, and other new alternatives to the “course unit”), it seems that the American system of transcripts is due for a digital overhaul. That’s where blockchains come in.
blockchains are now being adapted to create Distributed Autonomous Entities (DAE’s) to record contracts or manage the flow of documents through global supply chains.
Utilizing blockchain technology, it is now possible to create a decentralized transcript
These new transcripts would all require an individual’s private key and would be transparent in that anyone could design applications to connect stakeholders, extract data, add value to individuals and institutions, and arrange to deliver value to stakeholders. A successful implementation of this new kind of decentralized transcript would negate the necessity of costly third-party authorities and would enable students, educational providers and employers to cooperate in a system that provides a more well rounded picture of the modern applicant.
Pilots and experiments aimed at exploring these ideas are now underway at a dozen labs around the world. MIT’s Media Lab distributes a smartphone app that allows graduates to sign their emails with a transcript and control the amount of personal information it contains.
The Center for 21st Century Universities at Georgia Tech is building prototype infrastructure that facilitates sharing and assigning value to the growing number of non-traditional certificates and credentials
Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.
cmi5 is technically a profile of xAPI which means it piggy backs on top of things already well defined in xAPI, but adds specificity in others. For cmi5, this means that certain xAPI statements are required, and launch is handled in a very specific way
If content launch is ultimately going to transition from SCORM to xAPI, cmi5’s support for launch will be a requirement.
In 2001, the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) first saw the light of day.
It gave federal agencies, and organizations in general, the ability to compare and share content across various platforms.
From a technical standpoint, SCORM is an XML file that outlines content in a tree-like structure, along with a set of required and optional attributes.
Early on, Moodle had the ability to import SCORM packages. All the package needed was an “LMS manifest” XML file at the top following the specification, along with the course content laid out according to the manifest. Multimedia files and reading material are arranged accordingly inside the package, which is a typical ZIP file
In the rest of the world, SCORM was losing traction instead of gaining it, which seemed to be the case ever since SCORM 2004.
Most perplexing, the space vacated by SCORM wasn’t filled by anybody else, raising the question of whether anyone other than the US DoD really needed a learning specification.
the web 2.0 movement of web-services and 3rd party content accessible through standards such as the IMS Global Learning Tools Interoperability and now Caliper have opened the world of content and activities to Moodle sites and classrooms without the need to transfer files or other information between systems.
One of SCORM’s worst pitfalls was its complete focus on supply while disregarding demand.
But when it came to performance, SCORM had no way to ensure assessment outcomes were similarly standardized.
In 2013, recognizing the several issues facing SCORM (including, possibly, brand reputation), and a new technological stage, ADL launched the “Experience API”, or xAPI, a potential SCORM replacement. xAPI came with the appellative of “Tin Can API”, intended by ADL to reflect its “two-way conversation with the community.”
Instead of XML, xAPI works in JSON, a newer, simpler, and more flexible format that features the one thing the technical basis for a specification should have: interoperability.
While xAPI lets you add a performance profile and use it to automatically track and evaluate the effectiveness of a learning intervention, it offers little help in developing said profiles
For all the imperfections the SCORM specification has, xAPI has yet to reach SCORM’s status of standardization.
The global collaborative effort will help educators, universities, governments, and companies revolutionize the effectiveness and reach of education, and aims to help prepare people everywhere for a labor market radically altered by technological progress, globalization, and the pursuit of higher living standards around the world
opening educational pathways that are currently closed to millions
J-WEL will be an anchor entity within MIT’s open education and learning initiatives that are led by MIT Vice President for Open Learning Sanjay Sarma.
M.S. Vijay Kumar, MIT’s associate dean of digital learning, will serve as J-WEL’s executive director and will work closely with the faculty leads. Faculty will receive J-WEL grants for research related to this initiative
Leveraging MIT’s resources, J-WEL will convene a global community of collaborators for sustainable, high-impact transformation in education through research, policy, pedagogy, and practice.
new educational tools and methods will be deployed.
"The MOOC Canvas is a conceptual framework for supporting educators in the description and design of MOOCs. The MOOC Canvas is inspired by the Business Model Canvas and defines eleven interrelated issues that are addressed through a set of questions, offering a visual and understandable guidance for educators during the MOOC design process."
"The most familiar business reference model is the "Business Reference Model", one of five reference models of the Federal Enterprise Architecture of the US Federal Government. That model is a function-driven framework for describing the business operations of the Federal Government independent of the agencies that perform them. The Business Reference Model provides an organized, hierarchical construct for describing the day-to-day business operations of the Federal government."
"Business model design includes the modeling and description of a company's:
target customer segments
The Comprehensive Student Record (CSR) project is laying the groundwork for many of these efforts. Designed to supplement, rather than replace, the traditional transcript, the CSR is a year-old effort funded by the Lumina Foundation, in partnership with the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), and Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (NASPA).
The CSR is attempting to build a framework for further innovation through ongoing engagement with faculty, registrars, and student affairs officers at 12 pilot institutions. These schools represent a diverse spectrum of higher education institutions, including LaGuardia Community College, the University of South Carolina, Stanford University, and Brandman University, a recognized provider of competency-based education (CBE). CSR pilots at Elon University and the University of Maryland, University College (UMUC) are both notable in their own right, and reflect the priorities of two very distinct institutional missions.
partnership with Learning Objects, a Cengage company, and grows out of a concern that CBE programs could be hampered by the absence of broadly accepted standards for measuring and reporting competencies.
UMUC has piloted the eT in its MBA and cybersecurity programs, and is collecting feedback and data from about 2,000 adult learners. UMUC’s project intends to be laser focused on how these learners, and the employers who may hire them, will make use of the highly granular data reported about specific competencies through the use of the Extended Transcript.
The Mozilla open badges backpack was one of the primary structural concepts of the OBI. And it was one of the ideas that ultimately manifested as a real tool. And what a complicated life it has led.
Its original intent was as a referatory for open badges—any and all open badges from any and all issuers.
the Mozilla Open Badges Backpack was created as a reference implementation of how a badge backpack could work
Conclusion: The Open Badges backpack was structured around the concept of equity, personal data ownership, and interoperability. It discouraged siloing of learning recognition and encouraged personal agency.
The goal is that as a “shared language for data about achievements,” Open Badges and the accomplishments they represent can be understood by employers, colleges and other consumers of credentials
As a developer working with Open Badges, I see a need for badge software to fill this value gap by ensuring that badge consumers can understand what information is being presented in a badge and how it applies to their context
Without making the badge understandable from within consumers’ context, badges have no “currency.”
Currency, as a quality of money, corresponds to whether an artifact is generally accepted.
We distilled several factors that form both the barriers to how badges could gain currency and the opportunity points that our community
It’s a catch-22 that undermines alternative credentials’ ability to gain currency
It’s clear that for badges to have currency, people need to be confident in their value.
Casilli elaborated on her own blog that badge currency arises from trust networks, and if they are to gain currency, badges “must not only engender trust, but actively work to build it.
A consumer’s ability to trust the claims made by a badge start with verification of its recipient and authentication of its validity.
open badges have the potential to serve as currency.
Open Badges have the potential to unlock value for their earners, in terms of new jobs, collaborations, and opportunities.
Software for earners needs to help them show their badges in a wide variety of circumstances, often to consumers who may never have seen an Open Badge before
This barrier to developing trust in the badges can be alleviated by embedding information about the features of Open Badges where badges are displayed
A badge earners’ accomplishments are relevant in many different contexts and conversations, and badge displays should be tailored to the needs of those contexts.
Consumers must know why they can trust an Open Badge is valid
Issuers, earners, and consumers of Open Badges all have an interest in knowing that a badge presented by its recipient is valid
Closely linking software that allows earners to share their accomplishments with software that allows consumers to validate them helps reduce the friction and increase trust
“endorsement” of Open Badges and Issuers.
endorsement badges are shareable declarations of trust
One of the most important questions to answer about whether a badge should be trusted is who else trusts it, and the endorsement specification will make it possible to begin answering this question
The current situation is that digital badges are relatively easy to collect and display, but relatively difficult to assess and exchange, especially across different organizations and institutions.
The core problem is what we call the "value problem" in badging. Which badges are valuable? Who recognizes and accepts them in exchange for more advanced badges, credentials, certifications, or degrees? What badges will actually help you progress toward lifelong learning goals? How can one organization determine the value of a badge issued by a different organization?
Evaluators need a better, faster way to value digital badges. Until this value problem is solved, the potential for digital badging in higher education will be limited.
designed to provide a public, distributed, and shared badge transaction ledger.
Anyone can look up successful transactions for a given badge in the shared ledger, drastically reducing the evaluation time required for digital badges that have previously been exchanged.
Making transactions visible also creates entrepreneurial opportunities in the assessment of badges.
"unbundle" the degree into agile learning experiences.
Digital badges can empower lifelong learners, but they are most powerful when they connect learning opportunities to valued recognition. Open Badge Exchange seeks to address the value problem by opening up the badge economy, connecting learning opportunities to the assessment of digital badges, and supporting issuing of credentials based on actual exchanges
Success depends on the ability to create value for their brand
Regardless, success depends on tying more “agile” education and development opportunities to desirable competencies as they evolve.
Sometimes called digital credentials or micro-credentials, digital badges are a graphical representation of competencies earned through learning.
Unlike a paper-based certification, a digital badge is embedded with relevant “metadata” such as the badge title, description, date earned, issuer, recipient, expiration date and even specific details about the work submitted by the recipient. With “open badges” lifelong learners can earn credentials from multiple sources and accumulate them in portable digital “backpacks” offered by companies like Mozilla, Credly or Acclaim.
robust technology ecosystem in place to support rapidly changing skills-based training and digital badges
associations have been at the center of their industry,
Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.
These key elements are analysed through analysing its controversial definition, their pedagogical advantages and limitations, the functions of a tutor in a MOOC and their assessment (or accreditation).
Changing this reality requires investing in skills and entrepreneurship to improve and facilitate youth transition from school to work and adult life.
strengthen the education system and promote lifelong skills-enhancing programmes;
develop skills programmes that are more responsive to the needs of the marketplace;
collect information on the skills of the population and those demanded by businesses to build better national skills-enhancing strategies;
support access to broadband services, improving infrastructure and affordability to help youth make the most of opportunities brought about by the digital economy
knowledge-intensive economic activities
Fiscal authorities must tread carefully to avoid large spending cuts, particularly on infrastructures and skills.
Overall, all countries need more efficient and focused allocation of available resources based on improving state capacity to deliver goods and services.
Skills levels are poor in the region, due to the low quality of primary and secondary education and structural barriers.
This constitutes an obstacle to further develop more specific skills and, at the same time, the small portion of top performers may hamper innovation and entrepreneurship. It also presents a major challenge for LAC countries that are transitioning into knowledge-based economies where citizens need to innovate, adapt and leverage advanced human capital
LAC has the widest gap between the pool of available skills and those skills that economies and businesses require.
Education and skills are widely recognised as key elements to support youth transition from school to work and inclusive development.
Skills-enhancing programmes for youth that combine classroom teaching, workplace learning and job search services help young Latin Americans transition to employment.
At the same time, the interaction between design components and programme implementation is important for their effectiveness.
Training programmes that respond to the needs of the marketplace, thanks to private sector participation in their design and implementation, facilitate youth’s transition into quality jobs and better earnings.
For people with decades of working life still ahead of them, it is too early to quit but it is also risky to assume that nothing will change.
governments should be talking to industry bodies about the potential for mass redundancies and identifying trigger points
This is a boiling-frog problem,” he says
For lower-skilled workers of this sort the world of MOOCs, General Assembly and LinkedIn is a million miles away.
The rewards of retraining are highest for computing skills, but there is no natural pathway from trucker to coder
And even if there were, many of those already in the workforce lack both the confidence and the capability to make the switch
Moreover, learning is most effective when people are able to practise their new skills.
Any decent answer will need a co-ordinated effort to bring together individuals, employers and providers of education. That suggests a role for two entities in particular.
One is trade unions. They have an industry-wide view of trends that may not be available to smaller employers. They can also accompany people throughout their working lives, which may become increasingly important in a world of rising self-employment
The second entity is government. There is much talk about lifelong learning, though few countries are doing much about it. The Nordics fall into this less populated camp
SkillsFuture initiative. Employers in the city-state are asked to spell out the changes, industry by industry, that they expect to happen over the next three to five years, and to identify the skills they will need. Their answers are used to create “industry transformation maps” designed to guide individuals on where to head.
Some programmes cater to the needs of those who lack basic skills.
Tripartite agreements between unions, employers and government lay out career and skills ladders for those who are trapped in low-wage occupations. Professional-conversion programmes offer subsidised training to people switching to new careers in areas such as health care.
It makes sense for employers, particularly smaller ones, to club together to signal their skills needs to the workforce at large.
In June 2016, this newspaper surveyed the realm of artificial intelligence and the adjustments it would require workers to make as jobs changed. “That will mean making education and training flexible enough to teach new skills quickly and efficiently,” we concluded. “It will require a greater emphasis on lifelong learning and on-the-job training, and wider use of online learning and video-game-style simulation.
What is not in doubt is the need for new and more efficient ways to develop and add workplace skills.
The outlines of a new ecosystem for connecting employment and education are becoming discernible
Employers are putting greater emphasis on adaptability, curiosity and learning as desirable attributes for employees. They are working with universities and alternative providers to create and improve their own supply of talent. Shorter courses, lower costs and online delivery are making it easier for people to combine work and training. New credentials are being created to signal skills
At the same time, new technologies should make learning more effective as well as more necessary. Virtual and augmented reality could radically improve professional training. Big data offer the chance for more personalised education. Platforms make it easier to connect people of differing levels of knowledge, allowing peer-to-peer teaching and mentoring
But for now this nascent ecosystem is disproportionately likely to benefit those who least need help. It concentrates on advanced technological skills, which offer the clearest returns and are relatively easy to measure. And it assumes that people have the money, time, motivation and basic skills to retrain.
But it is as easy—indeed, easier—to imagine a future in which the emerging infrastructure of lifelong learning reinforces existing advantages.
But whether the fault lies with the educators or the employers, there is a need for pathways that lead individuals into jobs.
But pathways are needed to smooth transitions in other countries (America, for example, lacks a tradition of vocational education); in less structured occupations; and when formal education has come to an end.
That is particularly important in the early stages of people’s careers, which is not just when they lack experience but also when earnings grow fastest.
it is vital for people to move quickly into work once qualified, and to hold on to jobs once they get them
Users applying for a job online can click on a link and take a one-hour online training session on how to be a cashier, sales clerk or whatever they are after. Employers pay LearnUp a fixed fee to improve the pool of candidates. Recruitment and retention rates have risen.
Curriculum designers then use that analysis to create a full-time training programme lasting between four and 12 weeks that covers both technical knowledge and behavioural skills.
The trainees pay nothing; the hope is that employers will fund the programme, or embed it in their own training programmes, when they see how useful it is
And in a world of continuous reskilling and greater self-employment, people may need help with repeatedly moving from one type of job to another
Vocational education is good at getting school-leavers into work, but does nothing to help people adapt to changes in the world of work
But many workers will need outside help in deciding which routes to take
That suggests a big opportunity for firms that can act, in effect, as careers advisers
launched a programme called MyPath that is based on the idea of an iterative process of learning and working
earn a degree from Western International University at no financial cost to them
The degree is structured as a series of three or four episodes of education followed by periods in work, in the expectation that Manpower has a good overview of the skills leading to well-paid jobs
LinkedIn is another organisation with a decent understanding of wider trends. The professional-networking site likes to call the data it sits on “the economic graph”, a digital map of the global economy. Its candidate data, and its recruitment platform, give it information on where demand from employers is greatest and what skills jobseekers need. And with LinkedIn Learning it can now also deliver training itself.
The difficulty with offering mass-market careers advice is finding a business model that will pay for it. LinkedIn solves this problem by aiming itself primarily at professionals who either pay for services themselves or who are of interest to recruiters. But that raises a much bigger question. “There is no shortage of options for folks of means,” says Adam Newman of Tyton Partners, an education consultancy. “But what about LinkedIn for the linked-out?”
Education, like health care, is a complex and fragmented industry, which makes it hard to gain scale. Despite those drop-out rates, the MOOCs have shown it can be done quickly and comparatively cheaply.
In their search for a business model, some platforms are now focusing much more squarely on employment (though others, like the Khan Academy, are not for profit)
shifted its emphasis to employability.
It has found that when money is changing hands, completion rates rise from 10% to 60%
It is increasingly working with companies, too. Firms can now integrate Coursera into their own learning portals, track employees’ participation and provide their desired menu of courses.
Whatever the arithmetic, the reinvented MOOCs matter because they are solving two problems they share with every provider of later-life education.
The first of these is the cost of learning, not just in money but also in time
balancing learning, working and family life can cause enormous pressures
Moreover, the world of work increasingly demands a quick response from the education system to provide people with the desired qualifications.
In response, the MOOCs have tried to make their content as digestible and flexible as possible. Degrees are broken into modules; modules into courses; courses into short segments. The MOOCs test for optimal length to ensure people complete the course; six minutes is thought to be the sweet spot for online video and four weeks for a course
The on-campus degree also needs to mark itself out as a premium experience, he says
But according to Joshua Goodman of Harvard University, who has studied the programme, the decision was proved right
The campus degree continued to recruit students in their early 20s whereas the online degree attracted people with a median age of 34 who did not want to leave their jobs. Mr Goodman reckons this one programme could boost the numbers of computer-science masters produced in America each year by 7-8%
Universities can become more modular, too. EdX has a micromasters in supply-chain management that can either be taken on its own or count towards a full masters at MIT.
Enthusiasts talk of a world of “stackable credentials” in which qualifications can be fitted together like bits of Lego
Degrees are still highly regarded, and increased emphasis on critical thinking and social skills raises their value in many ways
Pluralsight uses a model similar to that of book publishing by employing a network of 1,000 experts to produce and refresh its library of videos on IT and creative skills. These experts get royalties based on how often their content is viewed; its highest earner pulled in $2m last year, according to Aaron Skonnard, the firm’s boss. Such rewards provide an incentive for authors to keep updating their content
Beside costs, the second problem for MOOCs to solve is credentials
The MOOCs’ answer is to offer microcredentials like nanodegrees and specialisations.
But employers still need to be confident that the skills these credentials vouchsafe are for real
Credentials require just the right amount of friction: enough to be trusted, not so much as to block career transitions
Even if these problems can be overcome, however, there is something faintly regressive about the world of microcredentials. Like a university degree, it still involves a stamp of approval from a recognised provider after a proprietary process. Yet lots of learning happens in informal and experiential settings, and lots of workplace skills cannot be acquired in a course.
One way of dealing with that is to divide the currency of knowledge into smaller denominations by issuing “digital badges” to recognise less formal achievements.
The trouble with digital badges is that they tend to proliferate. Illinois State University alone created 110 badges when it launched a programme with Credly in 2016. Add in MOOC certificates, LinkedIn Learning courses, competency-based education, General Assembly and the like, and the idea of creating new currencies of knowledge starts to look more like a recipe for hyperinflation
He wants to issue a standardised assessment of skill levels, irrespective of how people got there. The plan is to create a network of subject-matter experts to assess employees’ skills (copy-editing, say, or credit analysis), and a standardised grading language that means the same thing to everyone, everywhere
Using experts to grade ability raises recursive questions about the credentials of those experts
However it is done, the credentialling problem has to be solved. People are much more likely to invest in training if it confers a qualification that others will recognise. But they also need to know which skills are useful in the first place
"A college degree at the start of a working career does not answer the need for the continuous acquisition of new skills, especially as career spans are lengthening. Vocational training is good at giving people job-specific skills, but those, too, will need to be updated over and over again during a career lasting decades."
(http://sporto.wordpress.com // http://stellaporto.com) 20+ years of higher education experience, and 13+ years of experience in the leadership, management,
administration, delivery and development of distance education
programs, with extensive experience in e-learning systems and
methodologies. With a solid background in the technical field, Porto
has acquired her expertise in the e-learning arena through her on-going
job experience as well as theoretical foundation through formal study
in distance education. She has a strong higher-education administration
background, having worked with traditional and non-traditional
students. She also holds significant academic scholarship credentials
with research experience in both computer science and distance
education fields. The synergy of these two areas help profile Dr. Porto
as an innovator, highly-driven and committed to quality and growth in
her workplace and within the distance education field.